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Alexander Alexandrovich Milchakov

Alexander Alexandrovich Milchakov was born on March 16, 1931. From the hospital, he was immediately brought to a new apartment at home on the boardwalk, thus becoming the first newborn child of our home.
His father Alexander Ivanovich Milchakov (1903-1973) worked in the governing bodies of Komsomol, in 1928-29 GG. He was secretary-general of the Komsomol. From 1932 to 1938. He was in leading work in the gold industry of the USSR. At the end of 1938. had been repressed and had been in Norilsk and Magadan camps for over 16 years. In 1954, Rehabilitated returned to Moscow.
In 1949, Sasha Milchakov graduated from the school 12 in the Staro-quarter Alley, then board of Mcti it. Mendeleev. After receiving a diploma in engineering and work in the workplace, he devotes himself to literary creativity and journalism. He graduated from the Literary Institute. a.m. The bitter, working in a series of newspapers and magazines ("Innovator and inventor", "Change", "The Moscow Truth"). For many years he worked as a Programm podrobnosti in the edition of the newspaper "work" and then as the senior editor in the television USSR. His own Peru has a number of books, essays and stories. He was "troubled in the city" by filming a miniseries film on Dovzhenko's name. The book has been translated into several foreign languages and published in a number of countries in Eastern Europe.
Many remember the television broadcast of Vladimir Molchanov "before and After Midnight" in the late 1980s. With the story of journalist A. Milchakov-"Rosstannaja Road" on the sites of the secret graves of the firing squad in Moscow and the region during the years of Stalin's terror. We also remember his numerous publications on the pages of the evening Moscow, demanding the opening of the KGB archives and naming the firing squad and the burial sites of their ashes. In the early 1990s, A.A. Milchakov was chairman of the Moscow Commission on finding places for the victims of political repression in Moscow and the field.
Alexander Alexandrovich Milchakov left his life on 29 January 2004 and was buried together with his parents in the Novodevichy Cemetery. He was a worthy son of his father, a century of which was celebrated in 2003. Both of them, both the father and the son, each in their own way, defended the ideals of justice and civic dignity.

Mikhail Pavlovich Korshunov

Mikhail Pavlovich Korshunov was a singer of the House on the boardwalk and one of the creators of our museum.
He was born on November 19, 1924. Simferopol, Sloboda melons-El. In the 1930s, Father Misha Pavel Semenovich served as vice-president, then chairman of the Intourist. The family korshunovyh one of the first to have entered the Government House on Vsekhsvyatskoj Street. He studied Mikhail Korshunov at the 19th School on the Sofia embankment, in one class with Yuri Trifonovym and left Fedotov. Before the war, he graduated from nine classes. In 1942, after completing the 10th grade (evacuation), he volunteered to join the army and was sent to the Kharkiv military Aviation school and from there in 1943 to the Zhukov Air Academy. Subsequently, in 1945, the order was transferred to the Institute of International Relations, where, already his in 1946, he studied for three years.
In 1947, Mikhail Korshunov moved to the bitter Literary Institute, and was in the Paustovsky seminar. Konstantin Paustovsky once said of his disciples, among whom were Trifonov with Korshunovym: "They will not betray the literature in the wrong and cowardice, and they will not exchange their nobility for their own well-being." We believe them. "We love them."
After graduating from the Institute in 1951, Korshunov first worked in children's magazines, particularly in the Murzilke. There were over 30 books in the Detgiz publishing house. Since 1956, Korshunov has moved on to creative work, then admitted to the Writers ' Union. His books are autograph, bachelor party, and others. In recent years, co-authored with his wife, Victoria Romanovna Terekhova (also a girl from the Pol House of Government), Mikhail Pavlovich, creates books about the house: In 1995, the Secret of Moscow, in 2002, "Mysteries and legends of the House on the Embankment". These are the words of the last book:
"Whatever I write now about the house of has, however hard," oblijannye the blood of the facts, and no matter how interpreted the story of the house, the modern writers, rushing to podvorovyvaja our lives, I know, do not abandon the lived bersenevskih years, not perecherknuing them Black words, because I, like Yuri Trifonova, like all my friends, all the smell of time forever. I'm not afraid of being primitively sentimental and putting a hand on the rough wall at home, otogrevajaing it, off, although the house is more and more of a legitimate rejection by others. Also, for what the commemorative boards carry, and the people they are in honour of, do not always evoke compassion and understanding … It's true, but it's not going to take his hands off his walls. No ".
Mikhail Pavlovich Korshunov left life on August 15, 2003.

Yuri Valentinovich Trifonov

Yuri Valentinovich Trifonov was born in 1925 in Moscow; His childhood was held in the famous Grey House of the government opposite the Kremlin, and later in his drive, he will give the name "house on the boardwalk." From the Government House, after his parents were arrested, he was exiled with his grandmother and sister. He worked as firemen, Volochilshhikom tubes, Gvozdilshhikom-that is, laborer. And it was a dream to go to the Literary Institute, become a writer. The dream came true, he became an outstanding writer, but not because he entered the go and finished it, but because, in all his essence, he was a writer. The writing gene was very early in it: at nine, he was already "writing" adventure and science fiction, and in the twenty-five he wrote the tale "students." At the beginning of the Fifties there was no educational institution, no library, no matter where this news was discussed. Despite some stamps, a tribute to the time and the youth of the author, she had a deafening success.
But the real Glory came after the publication of the documentary "The Glow of the fire" and the "Exchange", and then every new thing Trifonova became an event. Publications in the magazines read overnight. Photographed (the Xerox was not there), even handwritten. His books have been translated into all the languages of the world, because they are perennial topics: love, loneliness, bitterness of incomprehension, fear of death … And all the majata and the futility of our then life in the country of the Soviets. What is called a "household" is a word that, as a label 'em to his prose then official criticism. Like being a base, a disgrace. They did not like it, those critics, they referred to it as the "Procrustean of the welfare", "on the Side of life", etc.
The circulation of his books was, in those times, ridiculously small, and the secretaries of the Writers ' Union published millions. His last novel, the novel about the destiny of the generation-"time and place," was stuck in the word: afraid to publish.
And there were pages on the table of the other novel-the provocateur Azefe, but in fact he was going to write a novel about how the Bolsheviks came to power. I was going to … And I realized that there was a wall in front of him-it won't be printed again.
And when he realized it, he died. 28 March 1981, aged 55 years. He died in a hospital bed, in a poor hospital, as many Russian writers died.

He was tall, big, slow, he said always slowly, he knew the story, he loved and regretted people, especially the old ones, and at the same time he was able to mark funny and petty traits in people. A wonderfully witty story; So do you. Not spared. I loved friends and knew how to be friends; Replied to all the letters, collected stamps (since childhood, when all the boys were collecting stamps); And in fact, with all the seriousness and even the mrachnovatosti appearance, there was a lot of it from the boy. A boy from a good family, although sometimes in some circumstances affected me the ability to give a hard (almost criminal) response to belongs and hooliganism.
He loved dogs and gniloglazyh kittens, easily forgiven people, helped aspiring writers, and hated literature officials. He didn't even hide his, kind of arrogant, defiance. But the unlucky was treated castle respectfully and with caution.

A. Trifonova

Boris Mikhailovich Yoffan (1891-1976)

Boris Mikhailovich Yoffan, one of the largest and best Soviet architects, was born in 1891. In Odessa. That's where his childhood went. Another boy Yoffan has a passion for painting and decides to become an artist in the future. At the age of 12, he enters a picturesque section of the art school. Later, under the influence of comrades, Yoffan moves from scenic to architectural division. In 1911, He graduates from the school and receives a diploma and an architect's title. On the departure of the military service, Yoffan practiced in Saint Petersburg apprentice with known architects of A. Tamanyan, a.i. Dolginova, partially employed by his older brother, Dimitri. In studying the works of the Russian classical, a young architect thought increasingly about the origins of the architecture.

In 1914, Yoffan leaves for Italy, which is 10 years old. The end of the art school gave Iofanu the right to go directly to the third course of the Higher Institute of Fine Arts in Rome. The great imprint of has's life was left by architect Armando Brazini, his future rival in the contest for the project Palace of Soviets in Moscow. In 1916 Yoffan successfully graduated from the Higher Institute of Fine Arts and began to work independently. He builds a great deal in Italy (Rome, Akvil, Tivoli, Tuscany, etc.). Then ends the course at the higher Engineering school. In 1921, He's entering the Italian communist.

In 1924, Yoffan returns to the USSR. He is being transported to Moscow a.i. The Rykov he met in Rome. Rykov was in Italy for treatment after a deferred heart attack. He proposes Iofanu to build a new Soviet life, a new socialist architecture-joyful, majestic and pompous. Has was interested in this proposal, first of all because it had dreamed of building large-scale public buildings and had opened up tempting prospects in the realities of Soviet reality.

Boris Yoffan became a large and significant figure of the Soviet architecture. In Moscow, its projects built comfortable and functional housing, social and educational establishments. The first residential complex built in Moscow was home on Rusakovskaya Street (1925), with excellent economical layout of apartments and harmonious exterior.

The largest architect was the House of CEC and the ANC of the USSR on the police Cordon Embankment (1927-1931). This construction is an important milestone on the creative path of architect. Built in the era of the idea of communal houses, this House was significantly different. It contained, in addition to housing, a large number of constructed public spaces: a club with a theatre hall (now the Theatre of Estrada), the largest theater in Europe in 1600 spectators, a department store with food and promtovarnym branches, Dining room, gym, library, mechanical laundry, mail and Savings Bank. The house had a printout of the time expressed in the asceticism of the external image. It was then dominated by a strict and concise constructive, whose distinctive features were simple, logically geometrizovannye forms. The gloomy grey walls gave the impression of a irrevocableing power, overwhelmed by its greatness, which clearly outlined this construction among late-design constructs and was apparently supposed to make the architectural image of the house a sign of Might and Invincibility the power he owned. Some diversity in this was the fountains placed by the architect in the courtyard of the complex, in memory of his presence in Italy.

On a site of more than three hectares, limited police cordon embankment, Street Serafimovich and Canal, about half a million cubic metres of residential and public space were erected on three and a half thousand piles, which, even today, is Huge construction. There were 505 apartments in the House that had everything to live comfortably. The Government House was the first and last target of an elite dwelling to which the definition is a simple, austere volume. All the houses for the Soviet elite that followed him were closely linked to the changed creativity of the Soviet architecture, which the course for the mastery of the classical heritage.

The main theme of Boris has was the design of the monumental and Majestic Palace of councils, which was to stand almost opposite to the "house on the Embankment" in the place of the Temple of Christ the Savior, which was blown up in December 1931. The idea of a DC was proposed by M. Kirov in 1922 At the first-of the Council Convention. Architect B winning the international competition. p.m.. has, UI. v.a. Shchuko and Trac. V. The Gelfreich was approved by the government in 1934, and the end of the construction by order of the XVIII Congress of the party was scheduled for 1942.

The size of the building have any imagination-height of 416 meters, weight 2 million. tonnes, total of 7 million. Cubic meters, roughly equal to the sum of 6 (!) of the famous New York skyscrapers.

Project development continued until the end of the 1930s. Construction began in 1937 and by 1939 The foundations of the high-rise part of the building were completed. In 1940, the first half of 1941. The installation of the steel frame for which the special high quality steel was developed with the label "DC" began. A Moscow stone combine was created for the construction of the Palace of Soviets, which subsequently dressed as granite all over Moscow (bridges, high-rise houses, the new Temple of Christ the Savior, Metro). "The Council palace will stand exactly the same as we see it in the coming years." Century is not going to leave its marks on it. "We will be so that he can stand, not aging, forever," he wrote N. Atarov.

After the war, it became clear that this huge project could not be handled. In addition, it was necessary to perpetuate and win the war in the guise of the palace. The work of the team under the direction of has was continued: many solutions were offered, including a reduction in the height of the building. Design interrupts declared in 1956. The-competition for the new project of DC, which was intended to be constructed in the south-west of the capital, was not implemented. The last nail in DC's coffin was packed in 1957, when the metro station was renamed "Kropotkinskuju". On the foundations of DC, the largest outdoor pool in Europe was built in Moscow.

Boris Mikhailovich, as the author of such a giant, expressed the idea of supporting this powerful vertical with satellite buildings that would give Moscow a silhouette of a non-planar city, but a city with a scenic silhouette. The point is, in the early 1920s and late 1930s. 20th century, a large number of churches and bells were demolished in Moscow, expressing a very beautiful "living" silhouette. As a result of the destruction, Moscow lost it and became practically a "plane", "Virgin" city. Therefore, the role of high-rise buildings that support DC dominant has been given great importance. In addition to the topography, ideological, they also topographic function. Each building was a landmark in the urban environment. Thus, the emergence of high-rise buildings is an obligation that we must iofanu.

At that time, the prospect of Moscow's development in the Southwest (in particular, the Sparrow Mountains) was stubbornly advanced. It's a very profitable point working for all of Moscow. It was on the Sparrow mountains that the architects wanted to carry out their most ambitious and ambitious projects (L.) Vitberg is the Temple of Christ the Savior, H. Ladovsky is a red stadium, and. Leonids-the Institute library them. Lenin). The first and most ambitious of all the heights approved the building of the hotel on the Sparrow Mountains (later the project was transformed into a Moscow-MSU building, but the original idea was retained). This work was entrusted to the Iofanu, as he was the head of the construction Trust for high-rise buildings (DC management). To emphasize the scale of the building and its impact on the city, Yoffan designs it over the very eyebrow of Moscow-the river, which is the edge of the Sparrow Mountains. This decision did not enjoy Stalin, but Yoffan long and stubbornly continued to defend it. It was a fatal mistake. In 1947, The has project is leading a team led by Leningradcem Lev Roudnev. The building was built within the original time-frame (opening of 1.09.1953) in almost the intended iofanom form. Much later, the responsible secretary of the DC Building Commission, friend and Comrade Boris has, the author of a remarkable monograph on architect Isaac Eigel said that the project had not been approved because of the important Government Communications.

The third most important structure in the master's biography was a magnificent, powerful and colorful, dynamic and impulse, and his inner energy in the USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Paris, 1937. At the exhibition The Pavilions of the USSR and Germany were one against another, demonstrating the political confrontation of the two powers in a spatial way. They were like two fighters ready to converge in a deadly fight. The Soviet pavilion was already built when the author of the German pavilion Albert Speer just embarked on a project. By buying French employees, he penetrated the room where he worked yoffan. Speer wrote: "When I visited Paris, I accidentally wandered into a room where fugitives the Soviet Pavilion project was secret." On a high pedestal, two figures triumphed, as if they were in our pavilion. "Then I would design a cubic mass, dismembered by heavy pylons, which should have seemed to be stopping this storm, while the Soffit 'veed from top to bottom on a Russian pair of eagle with a swastika in the claws." This text interestingly describes not only the form ("cubic mass") in which rivalry has been poured, but also clearly always Speer the natural shift of competition beyond the formation of artistic values and cultural values. The reasons for political confrontation prevailed in the Speer of the pavilions. It is indicative that both architects-Yoffan and Speer-received gold medals from the organizers concerned to preserve peace and not to create tension between the two powerful States. The architectural appearance of the pavilions, their powerful demonstrative character, were conspicuous. Our pavilion was certainly better. It was a structure built on one breath, the implementation of the original sketch, that for Variantshhika has was probably the only building of its kind. "The unstoppable dynamism of the artistic solution", "tearable Forward and Energy", "the symbol of the New World", called the pavilion. It was a victory, a triumph, a joy. "This piece will remain in the memory of the participants in Expo 37, just like the Eiffel Tower at the same exhibition of 1889 years" (d.) Arkin). The has pavilion is the embodiment of a single whole of two art. Architecture and sculpture meldeded together. The word of the fly said, "there had to be a balance and a subordination so that the building and the sculpture alone could not exist." The solemn footstep (invented iofanom), I turned into a expeditious impulse. A lot of work, power, nerves cost the faith ignatevne her sculpture. When it was installed in 1939, A 10-metre pedestal in front of the main entrance to the VSHV sculpture has lost a great deal. The pavilion was 24 meters tall. "The statue is crawling across the earth, all the points of view and the composite effects are destroyed," the indignant of the fly. Both-Yoffan and the fly-endured this for the rest of their lives and sought the installation of a sculpture at a higher level. And the Soviet pavilion is still in Paris.

The death was followed by Boris has on a drawing board that was stabbed with a sketched pedestal of the "work and woman" sculpture. This happened in March 1976.

Almost half a century he went hand in hand with his friend, his wife and muse Olga Fabricievnoj Yoffan. After her death, he recalled her most warm words: "There are people who do not engage directly in creative work, are not built at home, they do not make discoveries in science, but they have a wonderful talent to build the lives of others, to create The atmosphere for a lot of creative work. "This talent was enjoyed by Olga Fabricievna …"

The following literature was the basis for the material:

1.     . Eigel, Boris Yoffan, M. 1978
2.     O.P. Voronov, V.I. "A Fly," M. 1976
3.     Proceedings of the Scientific conference "Vipperovskie Reading-1996", M. 1996:
-AV Ikonnikov, "Utopia in architecture between two world wars"
-B. "Schultz," special case, "or development logic?"
4.     n.sh Saghoyan, "Illustrated Dictionary of Architectural Terms and concepts," Volgograd, 1999
5.    P. Druzhinin, the Palace of Soviets. Project of Academician Shchusev, M. 2001
6.     n.s. Atarov, Palace of Soviets, M., 1940
7.     Ivanov Cheredina, "Moscow housing of the late 19th and early 20th century", M. Moscow, 2004
8.     M. Korshunov, V.R. Terekhova The secrets and legends of the House on the Boardwalk, M. "The Word," 2002
9.     Lecture materials Gnima them. Av Shchusev

Sergei Baklashov

Buildings designed B.M. Iofanom

1925 -by Street, 4 (9 three breakout houses);
1927 -Moscow Agricultural Academy. Timiryazev
Street. Upper, 4a, Faculty of Chemistry and 12th Training Corps);
-Experimental station at the Chemical Institute, UL. Butt, 10;
1928-31 GG -1st House of the CEC and the ANC of the USSR ("House on the Embankment");
1929-34 GG -sanatoriums "Barvikha";
1931 -the Council Palace Project;
1937 -USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Paris
(sculptor) Fly);
1939 -The USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in New York;
1938-44 GG -Baumanskaya metro station;
1944-47 GG -the laboratory of the Institute of Physical Problems of the USSR;
The Laboratory of academician co-defendants Kapitsa;
Reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Vakhtangov Theatre;
-The Urban reconstruction project of Novorossiysk and Stalingrad;
1947-48 GG -Work on the project on high-rise buildings, new MSU building;
1962 The Institute of Physical Culture (Purple Boulevard, 4) is the last house built Iofanom.

Vasily Martemjanovich Ryutin (1910-1938)

Ryutin Vasily Martemjanovich-son of Martemjana Nikitovicha Rjutina M.N. Ryutin led a group of "Marxist Leninistss" and entered history as one of the few resisting Stalin as a communist who first calling Stalin as "the evil genius of the Russian Revolution". He was not 50 years old when he was accused of opportunism, arrested and executed at the personal disposition of Stalin (in 1937). His only surviving daughter for many years later fought for the father's name. Martemjana Nikitovicha's wife disappeared in 1947, in one of the Qaraghandy camps. Calvin's son was exiled to a camp in Central Asia and executed.
The eldest son, Vasily, was born in the village of Upper Rjutino in the hangar and then joined with the father and the family after the Civil War, Siberia, Dagestan, etc. In 1924, he was in Moscow. He studied for a blacksmith in factory, where he met his future wife, was his age at 14-15. They married very early, years of 18. Vasily graduated from the MAI, was very able, even lectured to junior course students, while still a student. The children were born in the family-Arnie and Tatiana. He was a very versatile man, a lot of reading, a lot of knowledge, playing in various musical instruments, doing sports.
After the institute worked at the Dirizhablestroitelnom factory in Dolgoprudny, he was the chief of the design team. When his father was planted, Basil was fired from the plant, expelled from the party, and he worked blacksmith for some time. In February 1938, when his daughter was one month old, he was arrested and shot and killed in September. In the "case" that was read by his daughter, he was accused of being a pest, a terrorist, a right Trotskyist and an Italian spy. The wife was informed that he had been given 10 years without a right of correspondence, which meant that he had been sentenced to death. However, it was then unknown, and the wife kept waiting for him.
The mother of wife Elena Fedorov Vladimir made every effort to do something, but all her connections were only enough to know the truth, that he was dead. Vasily rehabilitated in 1956, and his rehabilitation strove Elena Fedorov. There are several of her letters in the case of her brother-in-law. At that time, many people had renounced their parents, wives, husbands, etc., so it was necessary to have great courage and nobility, and even courage, to not be afraid to marry the husband of the daughter.

Ryutin Vasily Martemjanovich
1.01.1910 was born in the village of Shivers Irkutsk lips.;
Russian; Higher education; Member of Mac (b);
The engineer at the design bureau.
Resident: Moscow.
Sentenced: HC of the USSR on September 20, 1938.
The burial site is Moscow, buried in the Kommunarka.
Rehabilitated May 30, 1956. Plumbing 10.25.bbbb.rr.
Source: Archives Siec Memorial, Moscow

Ilya Fradkov Ravkin (1910-1982)

My father Ilya Fradkov Ravkin was born in poorest family on June 22, 1910 (a coincidence of war, he was unable to celebrate his birthday in 1941) in Simferopol. There, in the very late 19th century, his father, my grandfather, moved from Melitopol in search of work. He married, the children went, four of them: the elder brother of 1901, the second brother of 1906 and the sister of 1912. The parents died early, in the middle of the twentieth year.
My father has been a messenger since he was 14 years old before finishing school. It seems that only seven classes have ended. One time he lived and worked for a big brother in Kharkov. He then moved to Moscow in 1931, graduated from the welders ' course and later worked at an autofactory named Stalin, while at night school. In 1935, he entered the Moscow law school. As in previous years, he lived in a dormitory.
In 1940, he successfully graduated from the institute and was sent to work as a consultant to the legal Division in the management of the affairs of the ANC of the USSR. He was assigned a an room at the Government House (20 entrance, sq.) 403). Exactly 70 years ago, on 17 February 1941, he married my mother, María Petrovna, born in 1917, by the time that the Institute of National Economy, which had already completed its occupation of "commodity" and worked in a department store at beach. Photos of a very humble wedding have survived. Her father (and my grandfather) came to Moscow with my grandmother in 1901 and appeared as a locksmith to the Belarusian railway station. Before that, they lived in the Ryazan province, a goose in the village, which was known to have Iron factory Batashev since the 18th century. Her grandmother had seven children, but three died at an early age. The older brother worked as a driver all his life, a second brother worked in an aviation factory, and the older sister worked as a cashier at the train station. Grandma lived to the Advanced years (92 years), and mom died very recently, and she was a 91 year old.
In the fall of 1941, my father was called to the Army, to the Western Front, where he stayed until 1944.
And in Moscow in October 1941, the tenants of the Government House were resettled (the bridges were mined through Moscow-river), the father was already called into the army, and mom moved to the grandmother's apartment, of course, on the 1st Brest Street. And then a very unusual story happened. decided to leave Moscow in the home of a grandmother in Ryazan Oblast, together with her older sister and her son. Somehow they got there by rail and by Oka, but then, according to the mother's story, they decided to return to the capital so that in my future metric, the "place of birth" would have the word "Moscow". That is, in October, the flow of people eastwards, and the women's Trinity with seven kid and two women in the demolitions is tearing back to the capital. As a result, on November 16, 1941, in the wrong time, I showed up, like my mother said, at the maternity hospital on Miussah, into the shelter. We stayed with Grandma until 1943, then judging by the dates on the stamps of the cards sent by the father from the front-and the mother kept them all her life-returned to the Government House. They were returned to the population in 1942.
The father was on the front until 1944, apparently because of the heavy concussion that he would continue to be disabled for the illness that he received during the hostilities. All three military years, he worked in his main occupation, that is, the military investigator of the division and then the Corps. He returned to Moscow in the rank of captain, and was awarded the Medal for Combat Merit. Pure military memory in my mind was almost unsustained, and the father was not particularly divided, even though we were in childhood asking to talk about military adventures and exploits. He usually Carson: The cannons did not fire, the tanks did not donate, but he came out of the environment, and Contusion received the hospital as a result.
Following the return of his father in 1945, we were given a long room in the same apartment, No. 403. In 1946, my little brother was born. In the future, Ilya Fradkov worked where he was before the war, in the management of the affairs of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In 1949, the rank of major justice was demobilized. It's hard to figure out the reason, but maybe it was his nationality. The times were the most brutal in this sense.
On November 1, 1951, we moved to another apartment, also communal, to the area of the cover Boulevard, to a small higher-education alley, and now it has the old name, the small side, next to the ancient Church of the three saints. In the church, then, people were human. Our family was given two adjoining rooms. Of course, there was no comparison between the living conditions, the old and the new ones: heating heat, eternal roof leaks, etc. But life continued.
His father died in 1982.

Viktor Fradkov Ravkin

Bronislaw Solomonovna Metallikova (1909-1941)

Bronislaw Solomonovna was born in Ukraine, in the town of Proskury. Her father died early, and the mother of Esther Iosifovna stayed with seven children. The armor was junior. A lot of help was provided by the eldest son Mikhail, 1896 years of birth. He was in April, 1917. Joined the Bolshevik party, presided over the clandestine party organizations of Ukraine during the period of the fight against Petljurovshhinoj, and was then commissioner of the 14th Army.
In the future, Mikhail Solomonovich Metallics and the entire family move to Moscow. On the proposal of V.I. Lenin in 1921 M. The metallics were appointed chief of the Kremlin Medical and health administration. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine of Moscow University.
Bronislaw Solomonovna, 1927. Enrolled in school, received a higher medical education. He later worked as a endocrinologist doctor at Endocrinology Commissariat Health in the RSFSR. Married a lawyer and Ickova, gave birth to the daughter of Galya.
In 1933, M. and B. Metallikovy were participants in the Scientific conference on Endocrinology, held in Paris. There they were, probably accidentally, on the street met L. Sedov, the son of Trotsky. Earlier, briefly, Lev Glinski was married to Anne Samojlovne Rjabuhinoj, his wife, Mikhail S. Metallikova.
Bronislaw Solomonovna was very beautiful, and his husband was very jealous. Family life has failed. She left with her husband's daughter and lived in the older brother's family. In the mid-1930s, Bronislaw Solomonovna, after Ickovym, married Alexander Nikolayevich Poskrebysheva, the secretary of Stalin. She gave birth to her second daughter, Natasha.
Information about the metallic meeting with L. Sedov, after the divorce of Bronislava Solomonovny with her first husband, reached NKVD. And in 1937, False accusations were made against brother and sister in connection with Trotsky and counter-revolutionary activities. All of this gave rise to the arrest (6.6.1937) and the subsequent shooting (03/31/1939) by M. Metallikova. With Bronislava Solomonovny, thanks to Poskrebysheva's troubles, the charges were dropped, with the proviso that her name would never again be met in such cases.
But in the same 37, four months after his brother's arrest, he was arrested by Alu Samojlovnu Rjabuhinu, his wife. Bronislaw Solomonovna wrote letters to Stalin and take a look at their case. She only managed to ensure that the nephews of Marina and Sergei were not sent to the orphanage, but that they were given to their grandmother. She helped mothers and nephews a lot. In 1939, at the insistence of the relatives, she went to the Lubianka, asking for his brother's release. Her future fate remains unknown. The car on which she arrived was sent back by the NKVD. She's not back home. On the phone, Poskrebysheva the answer was that she was taken home. All the attempts by Alexander Nikolayevich to release his wife were unsuccessful, and he was advised to find a new wife.
The armor has disappeared, according to the testimony of Marina's niece, on the eve of the May holidays in 1939. Marina Mikhailovna says, "I went to prison with my grandmother, and all of us were told that Bronislaw Solomonovna Metallikova is not on the lists of prisoners." The documents of the investigation are said to have been arrested in the 1940s and sentenced to death on 22 September 1941. She was charged with the same charges as her brother. On October 13, 1941, when the German forces approached Moscow, it was shot. Her ashes, according to the FSB's archives, are buried in the pits of Kommunarka, near Moscow.
On 10 October 1957, Bronislaw Solomonovna Metallikova was rehabilitated. Her name and the name of the Metallikova are inscribed on the memorial plate, which is mounted on the tomb of ASI Samojlovny Rjabuhinoj at the Novodevichy Cemetery.