Boris Mikhailovich Yoffan, one of the largest and best Soviet architects, was born in 1891. In Odessa. That's where his childhood went. Another boy Yoffan has a passion for painting and decides to become an artist in the future. At the age of 12, he enters a picturesque section of the art school. Later, under the influence of comrades, Yoffan moves from scenic to architectural division. In 1911, He graduates from the school and receives a diploma and an architect's title. On the departure of the military service, Yoffan practiced in Saint Petersburg apprentice with known architects of A. Tamanyan, a.i. Dolginova, partially employed by his older brother, Dimitri. In studying the works of the Russian classical, a young architect thought increasingly about the origins of the architecture.
In 1914, Yoffan leaves for Italy, which is 10 years old. The end of the art school gave Iofanu the right to go directly to the third course of the Higher Institute of Fine Arts in Rome. The great imprint of has's life was left by architect Armando Brazini, his future rival in the contest for the project Palace of Soviets in Moscow. In 1916 Yoffan successfully graduated from the Higher Institute of Fine Arts and began to work independently. He builds a great deal in Italy (Rome, Akvil, Tivoli, Tuscany, etc.). Then ends the course at the higher Engineering school. In 1921, He's entering the Italian communist.
In 1924, Yoffan returns to the USSR. He is being transported to Moscow a.i. The Rykov he met in Rome. Rykov was in Italy for treatment after a deferred heart attack. He proposes Iofanu to build a new Soviet life, a new socialist architecture-joyful, majestic and pompous. Has was interested in this proposal, first of all because it had dreamed of building large-scale public buildings and had opened up tempting prospects in the realities of Soviet reality.
Boris Yoffan became a large and significant figure of the Soviet architecture. In Moscow, its projects built comfortable and functional housing, social and educational establishments. The first residential complex built in Moscow was home on Rusakovskaya Street (1925), with excellent economical layout of apartments and harmonious exterior.
The largest architect was the House of CEC and the ANC of the USSR on the police Cordon Embankment (1927-1931). This construction is an important milestone on the creative path of architect. Built in the era of the idea of communal houses, this House was significantly different. It contained, in addition to housing, a large number of constructed public spaces: a club with a theatre hall (now the Theatre of Estrada), the largest theater in Europe in 1600 spectators, a department store with food and promtovarnym branches, Dining room, gym, library, mechanical laundry, mail and Savings Bank. The house had a printout of the time expressed in the asceticism of the external image. It was then dominated by a strict and concise constructive, whose distinctive features were simple, logically geometrizovannye forms. The gloomy grey walls gave the impression of a irrevocableing power, overwhelmed by its greatness, which clearly outlined this construction among late-design constructs and was apparently supposed to make the architectural image of the house a sign of Might and Invincibility the power he owned. Some diversity in this was the fountains placed by the architect in the courtyard of the complex, in memory of his presence in Italy.
On a site of more than three hectares, limited police cordon embankment, Street Serafimovich and Canal, about half a million cubic metres of residential and public space were erected on three and a half thousand piles, which, even today, is Huge construction. There were 505 apartments in the House that had everything to live comfortably. The Government House was the first and last target of an elite dwelling to which the definition is a simple, austere volume. All the houses for the Soviet elite that followed him were closely linked to the changed creativity of the Soviet architecture, which the course for the mastery of the classical heritage.
The main theme of Boris has was the design of the monumental and Majestic Palace of councils, which was to stand almost opposite to the "house on the Embankment" in the place of the Temple of Christ the Savior, which was blown up in December 1931. The idea of a DC was proposed by M. Kirov in 1922 At the first-of the Council Convention. Architect B winning the international competition. p.m.. has, UI. v.a. Shchuko and Trac. V. The Gelfreich was approved by the government in 1934, and the end of the construction by order of the XVIII Congress of the party was scheduled for 1942.
The size of the building have any imagination-height of 416 meters, weight 2 million. tonnes, total of 7 million. Cubic meters, roughly equal to the sum of 6 (!) of the famous New York skyscrapers.
Project development continued until the end of the 1930s. Construction began in 1937 and by 1939 The foundations of the high-rise part of the building were completed. In 1940, the first half of 1941. The installation of the steel frame for which the special high quality steel was developed with the label "DC" began. A Moscow stone combine was created for the construction of the Palace of Soviets, which subsequently dressed as granite all over Moscow (bridges, high-rise houses, the new Temple of Christ the Savior, Metro). "The Council palace will stand exactly the same as we see it in the coming years." Century is not going to leave its marks on it. "We will be so that he can stand, not aging, forever," he wrote N. Atarov.
After the war, it became clear that this huge project could not be handled. In addition, it was necessary to perpetuate and win the war in the guise of the palace. The work of the team under the direction of has was continued: many solutions were offered, including a reduction in the height of the building. Design interrupts declared in 1956. The-competition for the new project of DC, which was intended to be constructed in the south-west of the capital, was not implemented. The last nail in DC's coffin was packed in 1957, when the metro station was renamed "Kropotkinskuju". On the foundations of DC, the largest outdoor pool in Europe was built in Moscow.
Boris Mikhailovich, as the author of such a giant, expressed the idea of supporting this powerful vertical with satellite buildings that would give Moscow a silhouette of a non-planar city, but a city with a scenic silhouette. The point is, in the early 1920s and late 1930s. 20th century, a large number of churches and bells were demolished in Moscow, expressing a very beautiful "living" silhouette. As a result of the destruction, Moscow lost it and became practically a "plane", "Virgin" city. Therefore, the role of high-rise buildings that support DC dominant has been given great importance. In addition to the topography, ideological, they also topographic function. Each building was a landmark in the urban environment. Thus, the emergence of high-rise buildings is an obligation that we must iofanu.
At that time, the prospect of Moscow's development in the Southwest (in particular, the Sparrow Mountains) was stubbornly advanced. It's a very profitable point working for all of Moscow. It was on the Sparrow mountains that the architects wanted to carry out their most ambitious and ambitious projects (L.) Vitberg is the Temple of Christ the Savior, H. Ladovsky is a red stadium, and. Leonids-the Institute library them. Lenin). The first and most ambitious of all the heights approved the building of the hotel on the Sparrow Mountains (later the project was transformed into a Moscow-MSU building, but the original idea was retained). This work was entrusted to the Iofanu, as he was the head of the construction Trust for high-rise buildings (DC management). To emphasize the scale of the building and its impact on the city, Yoffan designs it over the very eyebrow of Moscow-the river, which is the edge of the Sparrow Mountains. This decision did not enjoy Stalin, but Yoffan long and stubbornly continued to defend it. It was a fatal mistake. In 1947, The has project is leading a team led by Leningradcem Lev Roudnev. The building was built within the original time-frame (opening of 1.09.1953) in almost the intended iofanom form. Much later, the responsible secretary of the DC Building Commission, friend and Comrade Boris has, the author of a remarkable monograph on architect Isaac Eigel said that the project had not been approved because of the important Government Communications.
The third most important structure in the master's biography was a magnificent, powerful and colorful, dynamic and impulse, and his inner energy in the USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Paris, 1937. At the exhibition The Pavilions of the USSR and Germany were one against another, demonstrating the political confrontation of the two powers in a spatial way. They were like two fighters ready to converge in a deadly fight. The Soviet pavilion was already built when the author of the German pavilion Albert Speer just embarked on a project. By buying French employees, he penetrated the room where he worked yoffan. Speer wrote: "When I visited Paris, I accidentally wandered into a room where fugitives the Soviet Pavilion project was secret." On a high pedestal, two figures triumphed, as if they were in our pavilion. "Then I would design a cubic mass, dismembered by heavy pylons, which should have seemed to be stopping this storm, while the Soffit 'veed from top to bottom on a Russian pair of eagle with a swastika in the claws." This text interestingly describes not only the form ("cubic mass") in which rivalry has been poured, but also clearly always Speer the natural shift of competition beyond the formation of artistic values and cultural values. The reasons for political confrontation prevailed in the Speer of the pavilions. It is indicative that both architects-Yoffan and Speer-received gold medals from the organizers concerned to preserve peace and not to create tension between the two powerful States. The architectural appearance of the pavilions, their powerful demonstrative character, were conspicuous. Our pavilion was certainly better. It was a structure built on one breath, the implementation of the original sketch, that for Variantshhika has was probably the only building of its kind. "The unstoppable dynamism of the artistic solution", "tearable Forward and Energy", "the symbol of the New World", called the pavilion. It was a victory, a triumph, a joy. "This piece will remain in the memory of the participants in Expo 37, just like the Eiffel Tower at the same exhibition of 1889 years" (d.) Arkin). The has pavilion is the embodiment of a single whole of two art. Architecture and sculpture meldeded together. The word of the fly said, "there had to be a balance and a subordination so that the building and the sculpture alone could not exist." The solemn footstep (invented iofanom), I turned into a expeditious impulse. A lot of work, power, nerves cost the faith ignatevne her sculpture. When it was installed in 1939, A 10-metre pedestal in front of the main entrance to the VSHV sculpture has lost a great deal. The pavilion was 24 meters tall. "The statue is crawling across the earth, all the points of view and the composite effects are destroyed," the indignant of the fly. Both-Yoffan and the fly-endured this for the rest of their lives and sought the installation of a sculpture at a higher level. And the Soviet pavilion is still in Paris.
The death was followed by Boris has on a drawing board that was stabbed with a sketched pedestal of the "work and woman" sculpture. This happened in March 1976.
Almost half a century he went hand in hand with his friend, his wife and muse Olga Fabricievnoj Yoffan. After her death, he recalled her most warm words: "There are people who do not engage directly in creative work, are not built at home, they do not make discoveries in science, but they have a wonderful talent to build the lives of others, to create The atmosphere for a lot of creative work. "This talent was enjoyed by Olga Fabricievna …"
The following literature was the basis for the material:
1. . Eigel, Boris Yoffan, M. 1978
2. O.P. Voronov, V.I. "A Fly," M. 1976
3. Proceedings of the Scientific conference "Vipperovskie Reading-1996", M. 1996:
-AV Ikonnikov, "Utopia in architecture between two world wars"
-B. "Schultz," special case, "or development logic?"
4. n.sh Saghoyan, "Illustrated Dictionary of Architectural Terms and concepts," Volgograd, 1999
5. P. Druzhinin, the Palace of Soviets. Project of Academician Shchusev, M. 2001
6. n.s. Atarov, Palace of Soviets, M., 1940
7. Ivanov Cheredina, "Moscow housing of the late 19th and early 20th century", M. Moscow, 2004
8. M. Korshunov, V.R. Terekhova The secrets and legends of the House on the Boardwalk, M. "The Word," 2002
9. Lecture materials Gnima them. Av Shchusev
Buildings designed B.M. Iofanom
1925 -by Street, 4 (9 three breakout houses);
1927 -Moscow Agricultural Academy. Timiryazev
Street. Upper, 4a, Faculty of Chemistry and 12th Training Corps);
-Experimental station at the Chemical Institute, UL. Butt, 10;
1928-31 GG -1st House of the CEC and the ANC of the USSR ("House on the Embankment");
1929-34 GG -sanatoriums "Barvikha";
1931 -the Council Palace Project;
1937 -USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in Paris
1939 -The USSR Pavilion at the International Exhibition in New York;
1938-44 GG -Baumanskaya metro station;
1944-47 GG -the laboratory of the Institute of Physical Problems of the USSR;
The Laboratory of academician co-defendants Kapitsa;
Reconstruction and rehabilitation of the Vakhtangov Theatre;
-The Urban reconstruction project of Novorossiysk and Stalingrad;
1947-48 GG -Work on the project on high-rise buildings, new MSU building;
1962 The Institute of Physical Culture (Purple Boulevard, 4) is the last house built Iofanom.